Canberra Camps, Settlements & Early Housing-Ngunawal by Ann Gugler is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Based on a work at http://canberracamps.webs.com/.
Copyright Ann Gugler © 2012
The area of Canberra is Ngunawal land. The name of Canberra is a derivation of Kamberry - various spellings - that later was corrupted to Canberra. This spelling was used from around 1858-59 by the people who settled on the Canberra Plain. It was also the name of JJ Moore's property which was later renamed Acton. Following are a number of essays and articles on the Ngunawal people whose centre was around Yass. The name Canberra comes from the Ngunawal word meaning 'woman's breasts'. The two mountains, Black and Ainslie view from the pathways from Yass, looked like a woman's breasts - hence the name.
The information in this web section of Canberra Camps comes from a number of sources which include in particular, Mr Don and Mrs Ruth Bell, Ngunawal elders, who over the years have become friends who have walked the land of Stirling Park with me and shared their knowledge. Other sources include information from locals, whose perspective comes from a European base and observations and glimses of the Ngunawal and other visiting clans to this area.
This article on the history of Stirling Park is an overview of the area that is part of the Guru Bung Dhaura Hills. It sets out the history of habitiation in the park which includes construction era as well as some information on the Aboriginal sites withing the park.
This is a transcribed account of a talk given to Canberra & District Historical Society
This is a chapter from an earlier publication on Stirling Park.
[This story was published in True Tales From Canberra's Vanished Suburbs of Westlake, Westridge & Acton. Gugler AR. Later Don published two books - one in language and the other in English of stories.]
There were many changes of Mother Earth and the animals and birds, but all creatures were still friends. They would go to one another's gatherings and enjoy everyone's company, laughing and being very happy.
One day Mr and Mrs Gunginyal Kookaburra decided to have a big gatheringand invited all their friends from near and far. The Gunginyals Kooaburras sat on their favourite tree going through all the invitations making sure not to miss anyone. A gust of wind blew up taking one invitation into a crack in the tree not seen by the Gunginyal Kookaburras as they happily gathered the invitations to give to their friends. They worked hard right up until the day of the gathering making sure that it would be a success, not dreaming of the one they missed.
Everyone said it was the best gathering that they went to, plenty to eat and drink and the music as the best they heard. Supplying the music was Buru Knagaroo, Willie Possum, Mirri, the Wild Dog, Murugun Native Cat. The other part of the band were two lizards - large Muggadhand and the small balck Biddywang accompanied by Mugga the Snake and Wagur the Carpet Snake with Bundaulak Rosella, Yu Yu Mopoke.
Still talking about the good time they had and saying goodbye to Gunginyal Kookaburra they made their way home singing and laughing that filled the forest with happiness. There was one that was not happy, for he was the Spirit of the Trees Arungi. He was boiling with rage saying 'I will show them my revenge by making a big storm and strong winds that will rage all night.' Not satisfied at that he put a curse on the Gunginyals Kookaburras not to laugh or talk to anyone.
The birds and animals were shocked and appalled and asked the mean spirit Arungi to lift the curse and he just laughed and told them to go away, or he Arungi would put a curse on them too. Seasons came and went and the bushlands were silent, no laughter at all. The Gunginyal Kookaburras' friends would go to their tree to perform tricks to make them laugh and break the curse put on Gunginyals Kookaburras by the Arungi mean spirit. The best entertainers of the lot came to help, the dancing Brolga. They danced and danced sometimes missing a step and falling over to try to make them laugh, but to no avail. A long time after Dyara Bower Bird was searching the tree and found the missing invitation and Dyara Bower Bird took it to Yu Yu Mopoke who put his wings areound Dyara Bower Bird and let out a mighty screech frightening all the birds in the trees. 'Come we will take it to the mean spirit Arungi and show him what a mistake he had made.'
Finding Arungi the mean spirit all the birds and animals gathered around as the news travelled fast in the bus. Showing Arungi the mean spirit the invitation and explaining hos it got lost. Arungi argued back and said he would think about it. With that Arungi disappeared in a cloud of smoke. Time went really slowly that day as the sun crept slowly towards the [Brindabla] Brindabella Mountains and the shadows started to blanket the land with darkness, suddenly there was a burst of laughter as it mingled with the trees and gullies.
Everyone was happy now for they knew the curse was broken. So that is how the Gunginyal Kookaburra got back his laugh.
The Sydney Morning Herald [NSW] Saturday 21 September 1929:
STURT CENTENARY – Tracing the Murrumbidgee By Mary MJ Yeo.
This year marks the centenary of an expedition ‘undertaken’ for the purpose of tracing the course of the river, ‘Murrumbidgee and of ascertaining whether it communicates with the coast forming the southern boundary of the colony.’ The upper waters of the Murrumbidgee had been discovered in 1822 by Currie, Ovens and Wilde, not far from Lake George. It had been crossed near Yass by the Hume and Hovell expedition in 1824 and again in 1825 and by 1829 a few adventurous spirits were pasturing their flocks and herds on its banks beyond the bounds of the twenty counties where settlers were not supposed to go. Such men included the O’Brien brothers, Henry and Cornelius, Ben Warby, Rose, George Barber, Guise and the stockmen of Harris, Stuckey and Roberts. Because these had ‘squatted’ on land beyond the ‘limits of location’ this expedition was sent out. The Government wished to know something of the land that was being settled.
The command of the expedition was given to Captain Charles Sturt of HM 39th Regiment, who had just returned from his expedition into the interior of the colony.
The expedition started from Sydney on November 3 1829. Hamilton Hume, his companion on the previous expedition was unable to accompany him as the harvest was at hand but his place was taken by young George McLeay and he took Harris Hopkinson and Fraser, three of the men who had accompanied him down the Macquarie besides a number of other men. On November 18 they reached Mr Hamilton Hume’s station, Wooloobidallah near Gunning. After a short stay there they went on to Mr Henry O’Brien’s station near Yass.
YASS 100 YEARS AGO
Yass, or as the natives called it, ‘Yharr’, form the little river that runs through the neighbourhood was discovered by Hamilton Hume, WH Broughton, George Barber and JK Hume towards the end of 1821 and was visited again by Hume and Hovell expedition of 1824-5. Immediately after this adventurous spirits looking for new pastures for their ever increasing flocks and herd, squatted in the neighbourhood and beyond. Foremost of these were the O’Briens, who had ‘sad down’ at Yass and Juglong; George Barber (Hume’s brother-in-law) and Hume’s father, both had land immediately under Mount ‘Pouni’ now known as Bowning. Here the expedition rested a while whilst Sturt and McLeay ascended ‘Pouni’ to take their bearings and found the view sufficiently repaid them for their stiff climb. Writing of the Yass Plains, Sturt makes a wonderful forecast of the future particularly interesting in this century year 1929 when Yass wool and Yass sheepmen have been so much in prominence. He says: ‘Yass Plains are surrounded on every side by forests. Undulating but naked themselves they have the appearance of open downs, and are most excellent and are most admirably adapted for sheep-walks, not only in point of vegetation, but also because their inequalities prevent their becoming swampy during the rainy season…I have no doubt that Yass Plains will ere long be wholly taken up as sheep-walks, and that their value to the grazier will in a great measure counter-balance its distance from the coast, or more properly speaking, from the capital. Sheep, I would imagine would thrive uncommonly well upon these plains, and would suffer less from distempers incidentally to locality and to climate than in many parts of the colony over which they are now wandering in thousands. And if the plains themselves do not afford extensive arable land near the river to supply the wants of a numerous body of settlers.’
Mr O’Brien gave them 12 sheep for the use of the expedition and sent a black boy to guide them to the banks of the Murrumbidgee. On the 23rd they reached Dr Harris’ station, Underalio (Dunderaligo). Then their black guide after putting them on the track disappeared. Here the marks of sheep were abundant and they found themselves at O’Brien’s outstation called by the natives ‘Tugglong’ (Juglong), the position of which was greatly admired by Sturt as it was a little later by the naturalist, Bennett. They found the Murrumbidgee a swift river foaming over rocks, about 80 feet wide, with hills gradually closing in. They reached Whaby’s station (Ben Warby) on the 27th. Here the Dumet River (Tumut) joins the Murrumbidgee, and they saw nothing but the richest flats as they rode down the banks with Mr Warby. It was on December 7 or 8 that they passed where the town of Wagga now stands. They were the first white men to see this country. Towards the end of the month the river increased in breadth. ‘It certainly is a noble stream,’ wrote Sturt. At this stage a blackfellow told him of another large river flowing southward of west to which the Murrumbidgee was as a creek, and which was only four days’ journey distant. It was decided to take the river and a camp was made whilst the whaleboat was put together and another boat built from a tree felled in the forest.
On January 14 they reached the junction of a large river, and were ‘shot out of the Murrumbidgee’ into a broad noble river and had come ‘on the high road as it were, either to the south coast or some important outlet.’ This big river Sturt named the Murray. Following the course of the Murray they met with natives all along the banks who proved adepts at fishing. Then a stream came in on the right bank – the Darling – and they were introduced from tribe to tribe all along the banks, each tribe accompanying them to the bounds of their hunting grounds and sending two advance emissaries to announce their arrival to the next tribe.
They found the interior much more populous than they expected and found that the most loathsome diseased abounded amongst the inland tribes not even he babies being exempt from them. ‘Syphillis raged amongst them with fearful violence’ – and some tribes were afflicted with leprosy. ‘How these diseases originate it is impossible to say. Certainly not from the colony since the midland tribes alone were affected.”
As they continued their journey down the Murray other rivers were discovered including the Rufus and the Lindesay. The condition of the country changed as they turned southwards and the river became wider till it finally ended in a large lake. Thirty three days had passed since making a depot on the Murrumbidgee and twenty-six of these had been spent on the River Murray. They endeavoured to reach St Vincent’s Gulf hoping to fall in with a ship that would take them to Sydney, but were disappointed. There was nothing to do but retrace their steps.
The boat journey back up the Murray and the Murrumbidgee forms one of the most thrilling stories in Australian history. The eight men weakened before they began the return trip from privations of the outward journey had for the most part to row up stream without much assistance from the wind and upon reduced ration. They were 33 days getting back to the Murrumbidgee and six days later reached their depot to find that Harris and the men had not returned. They were so weak that they camped there, whilst two of the strongest men went on to Wantabagery Station to get help. One man lost his senses. They broke up the whale boat to make plant-cases for their specimens and burnt the remainder. The last of the rations had been served out and on the following day the men arrived with the drays with provisions. They reached Wantabagery on the 28th and rested there for some days, gained the Yass Plains on the 12th and Sydney on the 25th after an absence of nearly six months.
The Sydney Gazette 7 February 1839:
Messrs Huon and Watson – A contemporary of yesterday gives an account received from Yass of an attack by a tribe of Aborigines on the party of these gentlemen proceeding with cattle to South Australia. Huon and Watson had directed their followers to act on the defensive and to endeavour to show the natives the deadly effect of fire arms. The attack was made from two points at the same time, but was well received by the travellers, who showed such an unflinching front that the blacks made a rather precipitate retreat being pursued by the party and four of them taken prisoners, who were afterwards discharged with presents, being cautioned of what they might expect if the attacks were repeated. This conduct was highly judicious, and more likely to answer the end intended than violent measures.
The Queanbeyan Age & Queanbeyan Observer 21 March 1919: [Refers to tribal battles 1830s]
An Old-Time Tribal Battle. An esteemed correspondent one of the old identities of the district whose knowledge of the district extends to the Thirties of the last century furnishes us with the following instance of a tribal battle between the aboriginal tribes of Monaro and this district.
In the early Thirties of the last century (he writes) were the times when the black tribes engaged in their tribal fights. On one occasion I well remember the King of the Monaro came with his forces to wage war against the Canberra blacks then known as the Pialago tribe. The plains lying between Duntroon and Queanbeyan on the east side of the river no so long back were known as Pialago Plains. They presented a picturesque sight, their almost nude bodies grotesquely marked in blue and white war paint, with feathers in their hair each one furnished with a spear, boomerang and shield. They were lithe and active fellows, standing over six feet in height – a contrast to the poor creatures that used to hang about the settlement in after years. The blackfellow in those days was a savage in his glory, but if he was any savager than the white man of his day records do not tell us. The opposing forces drew up in fighting attitude out on the open plain – Monaro and Pialago braves prepared for a determined contest. The Canberra forces drew a line across the plain and defied the Monaro foe to cross it. Poor simple wildmen of the bush, ready enough to engage in a struggle with each other – tribe against tribe – to their own weakening. It never struck them how much better it would be to combine against the white usurper, whose foot was already in their soil, and before whose incoming tide ere long they would pass away like a dark shadow over the face of the sun. There is a tradition that the Canberra blacks were camped on Gundaroo river in the vicinity of the present village of Sutton when at daybreak the Yass tribe rushed their camp, but to their own sorrow for the Canberra tribe of warriors were too strong for them, and made short work of their discomfiture. But to return to the fight between the Monaro and Canberra tribes. According to Mr McQuoid of Tuggranong and Mr Wright of Lanyon it was a grand stand-up affair, and lasted throughout the day. Spears were flying and boomerangs whistling through the air, amidst the whooping yells of the combatants and the incessant rattling of their shields. But towards evening the King of the Monaro army drew off his forces. Next morning Monaroties marched up in front of the Pialagoites with a loud shout and much stamping of their feet on the ground, seemingly to frighten the Canberra warriors. But there had been a heavy fall of rain, and the ground being soft and slushy their blue-and-white war paint became presently obliterated with the mud they had stirred up. Their ludicrous state elicited roars of laughter from the Pialago warriors; and this seemed to enrage the Monaro braves that they rushed with blind fury on their grinning foes, only to spend their strength in vain. Seeing this the King of the Monaro hurriedly withdrew his men from the field and began the long and disastrous retreat, while ever on their rear hung, like avenging Nemesis, the harassing foe. On and on, for full 15 miles past Cuppacumbalong, the territory of the Kin Bongbong, eight miles to Naas, another 18 miles up to Booth’s Creek (as it is now called, but by the blacks named Durrandimmey) and so retreated to their own territory, defeated and disgraced.
In after years there was found the skeleton of a blackfellow in a small cave out that way, at a place called Boneyong. It was of great stature. The writer was shown a cleft between two rocks out that way where some of the bones of the wounded in that battle who had died were packed. It was somewhere about eight or nine miles up Alumny Creek. In another cave in the same neighbourhood, some years later were found a few skeletons and some broken speeers.
Australasian Chronicle [NSW] 4 February 1843:
Ten years ago the district of Yass was the outpost of white occupation. I am assured that those who were the pioneers of the numerous body now occupying this quarter, that at that period, the tribes in Yass and its neighbourhood were three or four times larger than now.
My own residence of four years here verifies this observation, a sensible diminution is yearly taking place in their numbers. And I find from enquiries that I necessarily make in the course of the annual distribution of the government blankets, that the numbers of the children, including adults, very little exceeds that of parents. It is mathematically certain then that the race, as far as this district goes, is disappearing; and I may venture to assume the same in the neighbouring districts.
Such then is the fact. The question now is, is this the natural consequence of our intrusion. I say nothing of the early days of the colony; nor would I desire too curiously to enquire into the history of our occupation of the country even within the last ten or twelve years. I believe that, at that little remote period the natives fell thick as the leaves that strew the vales before the lawless invader; that the lowest and worst of mankind, armed and taught by masters equally vile, spared, like the templar of Ivanhoe, neither man in their fury nor woman in their lust. It was indeed boldly and openly declared by many of the first settlers that they looked upon the natives in the same light at native dogs, and shot them whenever they had an opportunity.
But after that period a change took place for the better in this respect. That which was done then proclaimed on the house tops began to be done in the corners; murder no longer walked abroad in ‘ the warm precincts of cheerful day;’ it was done quietly. Passing over intermediate years and putting aside the very outposts where the European has scarcely warmed his seat, the blacks are, and have been for the last year or two suffered to die natural deaths. The murder of black anywhere within fifty miles of Yass would have caused as much remark as that of a white. And I learn from the blacks themselves as well as from other sources, than in this immediate neighbourhood, none have from the first, met death by violence from the settler.
The last assertion may be true of Yass, but it will not, we fear, hold good in respect of Moreton Bay, new England, Portland Bay, and other localities. We are willing , however, to believe with the writer that one chief caused the decline of the aborigines is ‘disease’.
From the second proposition we dissent altogether. We look upon the assertion, that the aborigines are utterly irreclaimable, as alike unchristian in principle and contrary to experience, so far as rational experiments have been made. That the attempts made by store building and coal mining missionaries at Moreton Bay and lake Macquarie should have proved abortive, cannot surprise any person, but the argue any thing from such failures is just of a piece with the logic of those who everyday tell us that the colony is ruined, because, forsooth, wool growing under the present system has ceased to be profitable. Such jumping at conclusions may be tolerated in the distant bush, or in a ‘newspaper writer,’ but they are unworthy of a grave essayist.
In speaking of educating the children of the blacks, the writer says –
‘But suppose they would, children have been taken away at the earliest possible age, kept form their tribe, brought up like European children. I believe no instance was ever known of these children remaining denizens of civilized life; it is notorious that they have always joined their countrymen at or soon after the age of puberty. Yet here were no early associations, no early habits, beckoning them back to barbarism.
Human physiologists of the present day, with few exceptions will account of this remarkable fact on phrenological principles. This is tender ground, and I wish to tread like Agag, delicately. But on what other principle can the acknowledged fact be explained than this; that the virgin page of the savage mind cannot retain our characters; in other words the black skull does not possess the faculties necessary for the purposes of civilized life?’
And again -
‘Tell the black that he is not to consult his inclinations, that there is another law than that of his will, it would be impossible to make him comprehend it; he could not believe it.
Now this is pure nonsense. Admitting the truth of phrenology, there can be no doubt that the black skull is peculiarly formed, and that the blacks, if civilized, would accordingly have their national characteristics and faults like all other races of men. With respect to the alleged facts, that black children brought up like Europeans have always joined their tribe when at maturity, if would prove no part of the writers’ proposition, if true, but that it is not true, we ourselves have known several instances. We have seen blacks who can read and write as well as Europeans and we have known others who have served apprenticeships to trades at which they now work, and pocket and expend their wages as regularly as any others. With respect to the assertion that a black can comprehend no other law than that of his own will,’ it only shows the utter ignorance of the writer, or perhaps rather the stretch a person will sometimes make in support of a theory. Certainly it required not the long experience which the writer boasts, to discover that the blacks have numerous laws relating to what may be termed the foreign domestic policy of the several tribes, to which they most rigidly adhere and the infraction of which is severely punished. Indeed the writer by his own admissions, constantly upsets his own theory. In one place he says, ‘I am far from thinking meanly of the capacities or the dispositions of the New Hollanders; I know them well, and see much to admire in both respects.’ Again – ‘The patience with which they suffer, and kindness and attention – as far as they know how to act – [with which?] they are treated by their fellows, present a distressing and affecting picture.’ And again – ‘A neglected an amiable and interesting branch of the human race.’ Are these then the characteristics of a people incapable of civilization? The idea is absurd – we had and almost said impious. Dissenting entirely from the writer’s views in this respect we concur with him in the desire to see something more done to alleviate the physical miseries of this unhappy race.
We take so deep an interest in everything relating to the aborigines, that we have only left ourselves time to glance at the other articles in the magazine…
The Sydney Morning Herald 2 June 1913:
TO THE EDITOR OF THE HERALD
Sir,- Being a native of the Queanbeyan district, and one of the first born in this district I may be allowed to give a little of my experience in connection with Canberra. I well recollect when the present Canberra was both called and spelt Canbery. I also recollect when the name was altered to Canberra.
Now, as to the meaning of the name about which so much has been said and written I cannot speak positively, but it was always my belief that Canberra or Canbery of some name approaching or nearly approaching them eally meant the great meeting, camping and corroboree ground of the blacks of this district in the early days. About Acton and Duntroon certainly was the favourite spot for camping and corroboree, which were held here. I well recollect when the tribe in this district numbered fully 500 blacks, who used to attend those corroborees. And, as stated, I always understood that the name Canbery or Canberra meant the camping or corroboree ground. Now, in confirmation of this, my belief about three weeks before the great March 12 the day of the naming of the Federal Capital I met near Acton, an old man, one of the very few old residents, and in a talk with him he told me that the name Canbery or Canberra really did mean the great corroboree meeting ground. But he said he was not sure how exactly the blacks pronounced he name. Now as soon as this was told me by the old man I wrote to Mr Austin Chapman telling him what I had just been told, but I believe it was too near the opening day to be of any service, but as the good old name Canberra was given, all is well. I notice Mr John Gale quotes from the ‘Yass Coureir’ old Queen Lucy’s statement. Go Yangberra was the name probably that is correct, but the statement that it was the sacred ground for holding the ceremony of changing or making boys into young men is not correct. I well recollect when these ceremonies took place, as the blacks often camped at my father’s place whilst the black men with the boys who were to go through the performance or to be made men, went away to the mountains, and that, too, into the most rough and out-of-the-way mountain top. I can speak positively from this point as many of these boys used to spend time with me bathing, fishing etc. The only thing we[?] could see in the reference to the ceremony was that when the boys came back one tooth was knocked out. There was another peculiar custom the blacks of this district had in these early days, and in connection with young men a young girl, perhaps only a small child or upwards was allotted to each of these young men to become his gin, or wife, when the time arrived for such to come off. These two then were called each of them snakes and were not allowed to meet or speak to each other until they took each other as man and wife. I have often seen them cover up the heads and run
away from each other during their snake days. I am, etc W DAVIS WRIGHT Brooklyn Captains Flat.
The Sydney Morning Herald 6 June 1927:
THE LOST CANBERRA TRIBE
TO THE EDITOR OF THE HERALD
Sir,- In connection with Dr John Lhotsky’s statement that in 1834 he could find no traces of aboriginals about Limestone Plains (Canberra) it is interesting to note the late W Davis Wright’s remarks on the Federal Territory natives. In his book, ‘ Canberra’ pages 54 et seq he states: ‘When the whites first came to Queanbeyan (probably about 1837 Hongkong was chief of the Kamberra tribe. It was not a very troublesome crown…From nany conversations I had with various members of the tribe, I got to know them and their customs pretty well. The correct rendering of their tribal name was Kamberra. Their corroboree ground was a Kamberrra as far as I can gather the exact spot being near the Canberra Church [St John the Baptist Church Reid]…it served also as their general and best-known meeting place. It was an ordinary sized tribe, being between 400 and 500 at the time of the first white settlement. In their nomadic style of life… they carried their weapons with them up to at least the year 1830.’ Mr Wright also wrote at some length about the weapons, camps, food and customs of this tribe. It must be observed however, that as Mr Wright was born in 1841 he could have preserved his youthful memories of the natives. At the same time, he could not write of personally conversing with members of the tribe if that tribe had become extinct before he was born. Either they were absent from their usual haunts when Dr Lhotsky passed through or some other tribe of considerable numbers had appeared there after 1834.
Following are some sections of diaries I have kept on my trips to the outback. The reason for including this pictorial information in this 'History of Canberra's Camps & Settlements' is that many of the sites I have visited have much in common with sites in the ACT. The grinding stones, chippings etc left by the Aboriginal people of the lands where I have travelled have much in common with those left in the ACT by the traditional owners. Here, many of the sites have been disturbed, but the grinding stone I saw in a Pialligo paddock looks very much like the ones I've seen in outback deserts. The stone arrangements too have many 'things' in common with those found in the deserts. In the outback, some of the areas I've visited have not been on the tourist routes and cannot be explained away as European garden beds or something the kids put there.
I have not seen many scarred trees in the desert areas, but that is because there are fewer trees of the type used for shields etc in our local area... etc etc
This file is a pictorial record of one of my outback trips that followed the path that the explorer Giles took on his 1875 Forgotten Expedition. It covers areas such as Wynbring, Ooldea where Daisy Bates spent many years, Chimpering Rock Hole and Pylebung Native Dam. The reason for including this overview of my trip is that many of the stone arrangements I have seen in the Canberra area are similar to those patterns that I have seen in the outback trips I have travelled on. Many of the outback sites I've visited have not been on the tourist routes and are unspoiled by European settlement.
This file contains a number of photographs taken by a fellow traveller of the outback and petroglyphs near Alice Springs.
In 2000 I travelled from Alice Spring to the Cleland Hills. In simplistic terms we travelled to the Olgas and turned right. Following are two sections from the diary I kept of this journey. The culmination was a visit to Thomas Reservoir and from there back to the Tanami via the hills where Lasseter spent some of his time on his last fatal journey to refind the gold reef.
This file is a section of the 2004 Canning Stock Route trip. This was my second trip on the Canning and this file shows some of the paintings along the latter part of the route on the way down to Well 1.
This rare book published in 1950 by Lindsay Black I came across in a second hand bookstore many years ago. It has been a joy to read and be shown a number of stone arrangements in the Darling River and Central NSW areas. Many of the patterns I have seen in NT, SA, WA deserts and in ACT. I decided to put this